Virtual Poster Session

Welcome to the Virtual Poster Session, a new and powerful tool for networking and information exchange. Here you can share your work, search though the poster library, and start a dialogue with others in your field. Each uploaded poster that pertains to force measurement and testing can currently be used to apply for an academic travel scholarship; please see the Scholarships page for application details and deadlines.

Sort By: Most Recent | Most Popular View All
Name: dyeradam

Background and Aim: Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) in midlife represents a potent risk factor for the development of dementia in later life. Early indicators to highlight particular individuals with T2DM who are at risk of cognitive decline are lacking. Subtle abnormalities in gait (and particularly dual-task gait with a cognitive task) have emerged as a potential predictor of cognitive decline in older adults, but have not been investigated in patients with T2DM. The ENBIND Study (Exploring Novel Biomarkers of Brain health IN Diabetes) aims to assess patients with T2DM in midlife without cognitive impairment and follow participants over the course of several years to establish early predictors of cognitive decline in this poorly characterised yet high-risk group.

Methods: Patients with midlife T2DM (40-65 yrs) were recruited at the time of their diabetic clinic appointment. Patients were excluded if they had a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, musculoskeletal disease, previous stroke, any form of diagnosed cognitive impairment or diabetic retinopathy/nephropathy. Patients underwent medical/diabetes assessment and examination by a physician. Cognition was screened using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and assessed using a computerised cognitive battery designed for prodromal Alzheimer's Disease (CANTAB®). Gait was then assessed using both a raw clinical measure (stopwatch) and Shimmer® Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) across four tasks: (i) 30 metre walk at a normal pace (turn at 15m), (ii) 30 metre fast walk (turn at 15m) (iii) dual cognitive-gait task (reciting alternate letters of the alphabet) and (iv) a long walk at a self-selected pace. Between group differences were assessed using t-tests and appropriate non-parametric equivalents

Results: 20 participants with T2DM (52.05 yrs ± 2.13) and 10 matched healthy volunteers (mean age 52.2 yrs ± 2.74) were recruited. T2DM was associated with a significantly lower score on the MoCA (29.2 vs 27.6; p=0.0452). Participants with T2DM had slower but non-significant self-selected (0.87 ms-1 vs 0.8ms-1) and fast gait speed (0.66 ms-1 vs 0.59 ms-1). On the dual-cognitive task, participants with T2DM made more errors (1.1 vs 0.6), and had higher dual-task cost (9.17% vs 2.7%, p=0.014). Dual-task cost (the percentage decrement in walking speed due to introduction of the cognitive task) was significantly correlated with total MoCA score (R2 = 0.17, p =0.031).

Discussion: Otherwise healthy participants with midlife T2DM display significantly poorer scores on MoCA. Performance on the dual-cognitive gait task was significantly correlated with MoCA score. Our study adds evidence to the presence of cognitive decrements in midlife T2DM, in-keeping with its role as a potent risk factor for the later development of dementia. We provide early data to support the utility of simple clinical gait analysis, particularly where a dual-cognitive paradigm is employed. Expansion of the sample size of patients in this study as well as longitudinal follow up should afford more detailed insight into using gait as a potential marker for cognition in this high risk cohort

Name: speel

Females commonly use a landing technique that creates higher impact forces when contacting the ground, thus leading to higher ground reaction force (GRF) acting upon the lower extremities, leading to an increased risk of injury. The lower extremity musculature plays a critical role in absorbing the energy of these impact forces during landing. Understanding how specific muscle groups contribute to ground reaction force may offer insight to creating more advanced landing retraining protocols. The purpose of this study was to observe how lower extremity muscle groups contribute to GRFs during an unanticipated stop-jump task. 3D musculoskeletal simulations of unanticipated stop-jump tasks were completed for five healthy females. Participant-specific scaled musculoskeletal models (modified gait2392) were generated. A pseudo-inverse induced-acceleration analysis was used to determine individual muscle group contribution to 3D GRFs. Means ± standard deviations were calculated for each muscle group during the landing phase. The vasti, soleus, and the gluteus maximus muscle groups were most responsible for bodyweight support, with the vasti and the soleus being the largest contributors (375.84±88.64 N; 267.39±103.70 N, respectively). The vasti group (165.63±74.94 N) were primarily responsible for braking and propulsion. Finally, the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and vasti group were the major generators in producing a medially-directed GRF, with the vasti group as the largest contributor (118.05±32.83 N). The vasti, soleus, and gluteus maximus appears to be the overall largest contributors to 3D GRFs. Landing retraining protocols may want to consider targeting these muscle groups specifically to improve landing performance and decrease injury risk.

Name: ffallahtafti

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of induced stress on the performance of each task during high cognitive load situations(HCLS). We hypothesized that induced stress leads to performance decrements during HCLS.
In this study, the HCLS included standing while completing a secondary task(wire maze). The wire maze was composed of a metal wire path(maze) and a single ring, held in one hand that was moved over the maze without contacting the maze itself. Stress was induced through a loud buzzer when the ring contacted the maze. Participants were asked to randomly stand 1)quietly, or while completing the wire maze 2)with or 3)without the buzzer. Trials were three-minute long.
A sample of 18 healthy young participants, (24.76±3.56 years) were randomly recruited.
Perceived stress was obtained after each trial. Regularity of ground-reaction-force (GRF) in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions as well as wire maze error (ring-to-path contact) were calculated as primary and secondary task performance.
GRF was more irregular during quietly standing compared to HCLS with and without the buzzer in both the AP and ML directions(p=0.02, p=0.001, respectively in anterior-posterior,η^2=0.28)&(p=0.004, p<0.0001, respectively in medial-lateral, η^2=0.39). Perceived stress was significantly lower during quietly standing compared to HCLS with(p=0.001, η^2=0.45) and without buzzer(p=0.007) conditions. Overall, the hypothesis was supported partially; during the most stressful HCLS, the high level of perceived stress coincided with less wire maze errors(P<0.0001, d= 0.72).
Identifying the strategies underlying task prioritization can help clinicians design appropriate interventions to challenge patients appropriately to improve performance during HCLS.

Name: priya28dharshini

Gait is influenced by peripheral circulation and neuro musculoskeletal system which can be affected by diabetes. Gait variations play an important role in increasing the peak plantar pressure in persons with diabetes. Biomechanical alterations in diabetic neuropathy could facilitate foot injuries, thus contributing to foot ulceration [1]. Understanding the gait characteristics in different category of diabetic population during walking can reveal the biomechanical factors which may collectively lead to foot pathology.
3-Dimensional (3D) Gait analysis was performed on 28 subjects with similar age, height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) (p > 0.05) with diabetes and without neuropathy (D), persons with diabetic neuropathy (DN) and persons who had a history of foot ulcer (DHU). Spatial and Temporal gait parameters along with kinematics and kinetics were compared between the three groups.
The lower extremity gait data shows that DHU subjects show increased hip flexion throughout the gait cycle with delay in peak extension and DN subjects showing a slight delay in achieving peak hip extension. DHU show a significant deviation in hip, knee and ankle mechanics when compared to other two groups. There is a slight increase in dorsiflexion among diabetic subjects during the mid - stance phase. The ground reaction force (GRF) graphs shows that the breaking force and propelling force is less in magnitude for all the three groups when compared to normal. The vertical GRF data reveals there is no significant difference among the three groups but the graph shows delayed heel rocker during the gait.
The compensation gait observed in DHU group may be due to the muscle weakness acquired in the past when there was active foot ulcer. This altered compensatory gait observed in DHU participants need to be addressed using proper corrective footwear and gait training sessions for preventing recurrence of ulcer.
[1] Katoulis EC, Ebdon-Parry M, Lanshammar H, Vileikyte L, Kulkarni J, Boulton AJM. Gait Abnormalities in Diabetic Neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 1997 Dec; 20(12): 1904-1907.
1. M. V. Hospital for Diabetes, Royapuram, Chennai
2. CSIR – Central Leather Research Institute and Department of Science and Technology, India

Listed In: Gait
Name: efonke

Injury could lead to impaired postural stability which is commonly assessed during return-to-sport rehabilitation. The Dynamic Postural Stability Index (DPSI) estimates variability in tri-axial ground reaction forces. DPSI is higher in injured runners and predicts performance in soccer players. DPSI has also been related to ankle range of motion (ROM) and strength in military personnel. PURPOSE: To explore relationship between previous injury, ankle ROM and strength with DPSI in collegiate runners. METHODS: Twenty-seven Division I collegiate cross country athletes (19.8±1.3 years) participated. Athletes jumped over a hurdle on to an AMTI force plate and landed on a single leg for DPSI estimation. Three trials were performed bilaterally. Ankle ROM was assessed via active dorsiflexion and gastrocnemius length measurement. Ankle and hip strength were measured using a handheld dynamometer. An independent samples t-test was used to compare DPSI between injured (IG – those injured in the past 3 years) and uninjured (UG) groups. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were determined between DPSI and other variables. RESULTS: No significant difference was found for DPSI on left (IG: 0.30±0.03 vs. UG: 0.32±0.04) and right (IG: 0.30± 0.03 vs. UG: 0.31±0.03) sides. There was a significant moderate negative correlation between dorsiflexion ROM and DPSI (right side r= -0.605, p= 0.001; left side r= -0.452, p= 0.001). There were no correlations between strength and DPSI except for right inversion strength and right DPSI (r= 0.446, p=0.020). CONCLUSION: DPSI seems to be influenced to a greater extent by ankle dorsiflexion than strength or previous injury in a collegiate runners.


Biomechanical studies have tried to assess the impact of the surgical approach on gait characteristics and recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Some studies which used discrete analyses have shown that some surgical approaches provide better hip joint function after one year post-surgery, but several studies did not find any differences. The goal of this study was to compare hip biomechanics during gait using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in patients who underwent THA with either a lateral (LAT), anterior (ANT), or posterior (POS) approach. Forty-five patients underwent unilateral THA with either a LAT, ANT, or approach, and were compared with 15 healthy controls (CTRL). All patients underwent biomechanical gait analysis approximately 9 months following surgery. Hip biomechanics were compared between groups throughout the entire gait cycle using a One-Way ANOVA SPM. Alpha was set to 0.05 and Bonferroni post hoc comparisons were completed. The POS group had a significantly lower hip flexion moment just prior to toe-off compared to the ANT and CTRL groups. The ANT group had significantly lower hip abduction moment for most of the stance phase compared to the LAT and CTRL groups. The POS group had a significantly lower hip abduction moment compared to the LAT and CTRL groups. These findings tend to contradict existing literature. Future studies should complete both pre- and post-operative assessments with a larger cohort in each group, as well as standardize the implants as much as possible to determine if observed differences are due to the approach and no other factors.

Name: j.p.verheul@201...

Body-worn sensors are commonly used for field-based movement and load measurements to asses injury risks in sports. To further explore the feasibility of using accelerometers for assessing whole-body biomechanical loading, this study used principal component analysis (PCA) to identify important movements and their contribution to the ground reaction force (GRF) for tasks that are frequently performed during running-based sports. Fifteen team-sport athletes performed accelerated, decelerated and constant low- (2-3 m/s), moderate- (4-5 m/s) and high-speed (>6 m/s) running, and 90° cutting trials, while full-body kinematics and GRF data were collected with a three-dimensional motion capture system and force platform respectively. A PCA was performed on the combined marker trajectory matrices for each task to identify task-specific principal movements (PMs). Resultant principal ground reaction forces (PGRFs) were calculated from each PM and assessed by the root mean square error (RMSE) of the summed PGRFs (∑PGRF). Across tasks, PM1 primarily described anteroposterior body movements, but PGRF1 errors were very high (>4 N/kg). Vertical body compression was the dominant contributor to the overall GRF and was described by PM3 (cutting), PM2 (low-speed) or PM5 (moderate- and high-speed), but less important for accelerated (PM10) and decelerated running (PM7). These results demonstrate that fundamental movement features contributing to GRF profiles are task-specific, making generalised evaluations of GRF features across different activities using predefined movements (e.g. segment accelerations) is difficult. Future research should investigate if PMs and PGRFs can also be related to structure-specific measures of biomechanical load (e.g. joint moments).

Name: empliner

MOTIVATION: Ladder fall injury rates are highest among older adults. While standing stability has been quantified using center of pressure (COP) to classify general fall risk of older adults, it has not been applied to older adults’ balance and performance on ladders. This study investigates the standing stability of older adults while performing a task on a ladder.

METHODS: One-hundred four older adults completed the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) to classify fall risk and climbed to the second step of a household step ladder to change a light bulb. Force plates under the step ladder were used to calculate the COP. COP parameters were extracted to assess stability on the step ladder including path length (time-normalized), RMS and elliptical area.

Task time and COP parameters were compared between 10 participants with the highest fall risk and 10 participants with the lowest fall risk based on the PPA.

RESULTS: Task time was 8.4 seconds (63.9%) longer for the high fall risk group. Time-normalized path lengths were similar between the two groups. The high fall risk group showed an increase in RMS by 18.1% and elliptical area by 44.6%.

CONCLUSIONS: Differences in tasks time, RMS and elliptical area were observed between low and high fall risk groups. Larger RMS values and elliptical area indicate more movement away from the average COP location. This suggests high fall risk older adults to be more variable than low fall risk older adults in their standing stability when completing a task on a step ladder.

Name: brunobedo

Fatigue is a case of interaction between different factors and is characterized by the increase in the perceived effort to exercise and produce force. However, the effect on balancing tasks are not completely understood, especially the time course of the postural sway parameters during the recovery phase. Twenty female handball athletes participated in this study. They stood upright in a one-leg posture supported by the non-dominant limb on a force plate. The center of pressure (COP) and the maximum propulsion force (FMAX) were obtained at baseline, immediately after the exhaustion due to the fatigue protocol and every minute during the first 10 min of the recovery phase. For the postural-sway measures, participants stood on the force plate for 30 s with eyes opened looking to a target. Based on the COP displacement, the ellipse area containing 95% of the COP data points (Area) was computed. The FMAX was measured during a countermovement jump. Specific handball actions composed the fatigue protocol in the format of a circuit with the gradual increment of laps. The force decreased ~9.5% after the fatigue protocol (p = 0.01) and returned to baseline values during the recovery phase at the fifth minute. For the postural sway, the Area decreased during the recovery phase until the fourth minute (p = 0.007). The fatigue protocol affected postural sway and force variables, which returned to baseline values after four minutes of the protocol. Therefore, we suggest that future fatigue analyses should be tested during this time window.

Name: noelletuttle

Generalized joint laxity (GJL) is a condition in which most joints of the body move beyond the accepted normal range of motion. It allows for greater flexibility, which is beneficial to sports such as dance, but can lead to musculoskeletal injuries and decreases in strength. The ability to control landings with strength and stability is key to high level dance performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in peak ground reaction force (GRF; vertical, medial-lateral, and anterior-posterior), during landing between dancers with and without GJL. Twenty healthy female volunteers with experience in ballet or modern dance were screened for GJL using the Beighton Scale. 10 subjects with GJL (score of 6 or higher) and 10 without GJL (score of 3 or below) were selected for testing. Subjects performed three forward, unshod, single-leg drop landings from a height of 40 cm onto a portable force plate (Bertec Corporation, OH, USA). Peak GRF for each landing was found and averaged for each subject, and for each group. No significant differences were found in peak GRF in any direction (p=0.71). We believe the similarity in peak forces between groups is due to dancers’ training and technique, as dancers are expected to control and soften their landings. GRF provides information about the load placed on the body, but lacks details related to landing technique. Further research describing 3D landing kinematics, joint moments, and muscle activation is required to determine if different landing techniques exist between dancers with and without GJL.

Listed In: Biomechanics