Range of Motion

Relationship between Range of Motion, Strength, Upper Quarter Y-balance Test and a history of Shoulder Injury among NCAA Division I Overhead Athletes

Background: Several risk factors have been identified as contributors to the development of shoulder injuries, including glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, rotator cuff weakness, and shoulder instability. However, lasting deficits of the physical characteristics among overhead athletes with a history of a shoulder injury are unknown. Objective: To compare shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength, and upper-quarter dynamic balance between collegiate overhead athletes with and without a history of a shoulder injury. Methods: 58 overhead athletes were distributed into a shoulder injury history group (n=25) and healthy group (n=33). All participants were fully participating in NCAA Division I baseball, softball, volleyball, or tennis and free of any symptoms of shoulder injuries. An investigator measured active ROM for dominant shoulder internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER), and horizontal adduction (HAD) using a digital inclinometer. Isometric strength for dominant shoulder IR and ER at 90° of abduction was measured using a hand-held dynamometer. The upper quarter dynamic balance was assessed via the Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (UQYBT). Results: The injury group demonstrated a lower UQYBT mean score in the superolateral direction. However, there were no statistically significant intergroup differences in shoulder ROM, strength, ER/IR strength ratio, and UQYBT in the medial direction and inferolateral direction. Conclusions: Overhead athletes with a previous history of shoulder injury had poorer UQYBT in the superolateral direction despite a lack of ongoing symptoms or deficits in function. Well-planed dynamic balance training and related strengthening exercises may be warranted for overhead athletes to improve their upper quarter functions.
Listed In: Physical Therapy, Sports Science, Other


Acute Effects of Lateral Ankle Sprains on Range of Motion, Single Limb Balance, and Self-Reported Function

One in three individuals who suffer a lateral ankle sprain (LAS) subsequently develop chronic ankle instability. However, our inability to properly treat acute LAS is not surprising given our limited understanding of post-LAS consequences. 12 patients (21.6±2.9yrs; 172.9±13.1cm; 79.1±21.4kg) with an acute LAS participated. All participants were evaluated for dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM), time-to-boundary (TTB) in single limb balance (SLB), and self-reported function (SRF) at 1-week, 2-weeks, 4-weeks, 6-weeks, and 8-weeks post injury. Both the involved and uninvolved limbs were measured during the patients first test session. DFROM was assessed using the weight-bearing lunge test and all participants performed 3, 10s of single limb stance with eyes open on a force plate to measure their single limb balance. SRF was measured using the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and FAAM-Sport (FAAM-S). Post injury time points were compared to a control condition using multivariate ANOVAs (α=0.05). Relative to the control condition, FAAM and FAAM-S were significantly lower at 1-week and 2-weeks post injury. The FAAM-S was also significantly lower score compare to control condition at 4-weeks post-injury. Both FAAM and FAAM-S were not significant different at 6-weeks post-injury. Post-injury TTB measures and DFROM were not significantly different from the control condition. Non-significant declines in DFROM and TTB were observed as in this sample of acute LAS and appear to present with unique recovery patterns. Different recovery patterns among the tested outcomes indicate the need for further research with a larger cohort and for a longer post-injury duration.


Listed In: Biomechanics, Physical Therapy, Posturography, Sports Science