physical characteristics

Relationship between Range of Motion, Strength, Upper Quarter Y-balance Test and a history of Shoulder Injury among NCAA Division I Overhead Athletes

Background: Several risk factors have been identified as contributors to the development of shoulder injuries, including glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, rotator cuff weakness, and shoulder instability. However, lasting deficits of the physical characteristics among overhead athletes with a history of a shoulder injury are unknown. Objective: To compare shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength, and upper-quarter dynamic balance between collegiate overhead athletes with and without a history of a shoulder injury. Methods: 58 overhead athletes were distributed into a shoulder injury history group (n=25) and healthy group (n=33). All participants were fully participating in NCAA Division I baseball, softball, volleyball, or tennis and free of any symptoms of shoulder injuries. An investigator measured active ROM for dominant shoulder internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER), and horizontal adduction (HAD) using a digital inclinometer. Isometric strength for dominant shoulder IR and ER at 90° of abduction was measured using a hand-held dynamometer. The upper quarter dynamic balance was assessed via the Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (UQYBT). Results: The injury group demonstrated a lower UQYBT mean score in the superolateral direction. However, there were no statistically significant intergroup differences in shoulder ROM, strength, ER/IR strength ratio, and UQYBT in the medial direction and inferolateral direction. Conclusions: Overhead athletes with a previous history of shoulder injury had poorer UQYBT in the superolateral direction despite a lack of ongoing symptoms or deficits in function. Well-planed dynamic balance training and related strengthening exercises may be warranted for overhead athletes to improve their upper quarter functions.
Listed In: Physical Therapy, Sports Science, Other