joint work

Static Foot Structure May Predict Midfoot Mechanics

INTRODUCTION: Clinical interventions for foot injury prevention are often prescribed based on static measures of foot structure. However, this convention merits further investigation as the static-dynamic relationship has only been explored in walking and running. The primary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between static foot structure and dynamic midfoot kinematics and kinetics during a barefoot single-leg landing. METHODS: 48 females (age=20.4±1.8 yr, height=1.6±0.06 m, weight=57.3±5.5 kg) completed the study. Standing arch height index (AHI) was measured using the Arch Height Index Measurement System. Skin markers were attached using a multi-segment foot model by Bruening et al.1 A14-camera motion capture system (Vicon) was used to sample kinematic data at 250Hz while two force platforms (AMTI) sampled kinetic data at 1000Hz. A static trial was captured then subjects hung from wooden rings and performed barefoot single-leg drop landings from a height of 0.4m. Metrics were calculated in Visual 3D (C-motion, Inc.) to obtain static midfoot angle (MA), midtarsal range of motion (ROM), and midtarsal work. PCCs were calculated for static and dynamic variables using paired t-tests in SAS. RESULTS: AHI was correlated negatively with sagittal plane midtarsal ROM (r=-0.32032, p=0.0264) and positively with midtarsal work (r=0.33180, p=0.0212). MA was correlated positively with sagittal plane midtarsal ROM (r=0.48336, p=0.0005) and negatively with midtarsal work (r=-0.32321, p=0.0250). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Static foot structure may be a valuable clinical tool in assessing midfoot function relating to injury risk in athletes, who participate in high-impact loading activities, as well as in pathological populations.
Listed In: Biomechanics, Orthopedic Research, Physical Therapy, Sports Science

Positive Ankle Work is Decreased in Peripheral Arterial Disease Before the Onset of Claudication Pain

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a vascular disease characterized by atherosclerotic blockages restricting blood flow to the lower extremities causing pain and discomfort with physical activity. Several studies have previously found decrements in ambulation associated with PAD, such as decreased joint moments and powers before and after the onset of claudication pain [1]. With decreases in moments and powers, the joint work may also be decremented as well. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the positive and negative work at the ankle, knee and hip of PAD patients in a pain-free condition and compare them to gait-velocity matched controls. Five patients with PAD and five healthy older controls were consented for participation. Subjects walked along a 10-meter walkway at their own self-selected speed while kinematics and kinetics were recorded. Each subject rested one minute between trials to mitigate fatigue and prevent ischemic pain. The positive and negative joint work for the PAD patients’ affected limb and the right limb of each control were analyzed and compared through independent t-tests (α=0.05). Five PAD patients (66.6 + 6.2 years; 178.2 + 9.3 cm; 102.6 + 18.5 kg; 1.16 + 0.07 m/s) and five controls (69 + 4.6 years; 174.5 + 1.6 cm; 79.4 + 8.14 kg; 1.30 + 0.09 m/s) were used for analysis. From this study it was found that patients with PAD exhibit a 26% reduction in positive ankle joint work during stance phase than their healthy counterparts (p=0.012).
Listed In: Biomechanics