3D Kinetics

The Effect of 3D Thigh-Calf Contact on External Knee Forces and Moments in Six High Knee Flexion Movements

When performing high knee flexion movements (>120º), thigh-calf (TC) and heel-gluteal (HG) structures come into contact and transmit force between segments. Previous work has only assessed the effect of these forces on net external knee joint forces and moments in the sagittal plane. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of incorporating the 3D location and orientation of TC and HG force vectors on external forces and moments acting on the knee. Sixteen participants (8 M/F) completed five repetitions of six high-flexion movements. Kinematics, kinetics, and pressure distribution (of TC and HG contact) were measured from the right lower limb. Inverse dynamics were calculated with and without TC and HG force, to determine the change in magnitude. During high knee flexion movements, there was a significant reduction in AP forces (~50%) and F/E moments (~27%) as a result of considering contact between lower limb segments. Novel to this study was the ability to account for the 3D force vector and CoF location of TC and HG by tracking the motion of the pressure mat allowing the effect on frontal plane moments to be determined. There was a significant increase in the Ab/Ad moment (~60% in two movements) which is a known risk factor for knee osteoarthritis development. These results will improve the biofidelity of future high flexion musculoskeletal models of the knee. Future work is required to determine if findings from this young and healthy population translates to occupational or individuals that habitually kneel.
Listed In: Biomechanics

Are static and dynamic squatting activities comparable?

Background: Numerous studies have described 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and electromyography (EMG) of the lower limb during quasi-static or dynamic squatting activities. However there is only little information on the comparison of these two squatting conditions. Only one study compared these activities in terms of 3D kinematics, but no information was available on 3D kinetics and EMG. The purpose of this study was to compare simultaneous recordings of 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG of the lower limb during quasi-static and fast dynamic squats. Methods: Ten subjects were recruited. 3D knee kinematics was recorded with a motion capture system, 3D kinetics was recorded with a force plate, and EMG of 8 muscles was recorded with surface electrodes. Each subject performed a quasi-static squat and several fast dynamic squats from 0° to 70° of knee flexion. Findings: Mean differences between quasi-static and dynamic squats were 1.6° for rotations, 1.8 mm for translations, 38 N ground reaction forces (2.1 % of subjects’ body weight), 6 Nm for torques, 13.0 mm for center of pressure, and 7 µV for EMG (6.3% of the maximum dynamic electromyographic activities ). Some significant differences (P < 0.05) were found in anterior-posterior translation, vertical forces and EMG. Interpretation: All differences found between quasi-static and fast dynamic squats can be considered small. 69.5% of the compared data were equivalent. In conclusion, this study show for the first time that quasi-static and dynamic squatting activities are comparable in terms of 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG.

Listed In: Biomechanical Engineering, Biomechanics, Gait, Orthopedic Research, Posturography