The Force and Motion Foundation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization whose purpose is to support students in fields related to multi-axis force measurement and testing. Fully funded by AMTI, The Foundation awards travel grants to aid promising graduate students on their paths to becoming the scientific leaders of tomorrow. The Foundation also serves as creator and curator of the Virtual Poster Session, an international resource for information exchange and networking within the academic community.


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Since its inception, The Foundation has granted $220,000.00 in academic scholarships and $119,000.00 in travel awards





Submit your Scientific Poster for 2023 2nd  Quarter $1000 Academic Travel Scholarships now 


Congratulations to  Travel Awardees for First Quarter 2023:

Hyunwook Lee- Brigham Young University; Minsub Oh- Brigham Young University; Angela Mossor - Northeast Ohio Medical School


Recent Posters

Natural control of limb motion is continuous and progressively adaptive to individual intent. While intuitive interfaces have the potential to rely on the neuromuscular input by the user for continuous adaptation, continuous volitional control of assistive devices that can generalize across various tasks has not been addressed. In this study, we propose a method to use spatiotemporal ultrasound features of the rectus femoris and vastus intermedius muscles of able-bodied individuals for task-invariant learning of continuous knee kinematics during steady-state and transient ambulation. The task-invariant learning paradigm was statistically evaluated against a task-specific paradigm for the steady-state (1) level-walk, (2) incline, (3) decline, (4) stair ascent, and (5) stair descent ambulation tasks. The transitions between steady-state stair ambulation and level-ground walking were also investigated. It was observed that the continuous knee kinematics can be learned using a task-invariant learning paradigm with statistically comparable accuracy to a task-specific paradigm. Statistical analysis further revealed that incorporating the temporal ultrasound features significantly improves the accuracy of continuous estimations (p < 0.05). The average root mean square errors (RMSEs) of knee angle and angular velocity estimation were 7.06° and 53.1°/sec, respectively, for the task-invariant learning compared to 6.00° and 51.8°/sec for the task-specific models. High accuracy of continuous task-invariant paradigms overcome the barrier of task-specific control schemes and motivate the implementation of direct volitional control of lower-limb assistive devices using ultrasound sensing, which may eventually enhance the intuitiveness and functionality of these devices towards a "free form" control approach.

Clinically, the five-times STS task (FTSTS) is used to assess balance and muscle efficiency in the lower extremities of various populations. However, the changes that occur in body mechanics with greater repetitions and the effects of dual tasking while performing FTSTS are currently unknown. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of dual tasking and multiple repetitions on the FTSTS task in healthy, young adults. METHODS:10 healthy adults (age 24 (4.1) years) stood up and sat down five times fast without (SingleTask) and with a concurrent cognitive task of counting backwards by 3 (DualTask). Time to complete FTSTS was measured. Impulse (Ns/BW), peak force (N/BW), and power (Nm/BW.s) were calculated using ground reaction forces. A 2-way ANOVA and paired samples t-test were conducted. RESULTS: Participants took significantly longer to complete FTSTS during DualTask (8.16[1.77]s) vs. SingleTask (7.38[1.08]; p=.05). Concentric impulse significantly increased from 0.55 (0.02) during SingleTask to 0.59 (0.03) during DualTask (p=.022). Power significantly decreased from 0.99 (0.04) during SingleTask to 0.92 (0.05) during DualTask (p=.017). FTSTS concentric, and eccentric impulse significantly increased from 1st to 5th repetition respectively: 0.56 (0.03) to 0.59 (0.03; p=.005), 0.49 (0.03) to 0.56 (0.04; p=.013). Also, standing peak force significantly decreased from 1st repetition (1.39[0.03]) to 5th repetition (1.34[0.03]; p=.004). The mean peak force standing decreased more from 1st to 5th repetition under SingleTask (1.39[0.04] to 1.32[0.03]) compared to DualTask (1.39[0.03] to 1.35[0.03]; p=.044). CONCLUSION: Force characteristics are altered by both dual tasking and number of repetitions during the FTSTS task in healthy, young adults.

Healthy articular cartilage supports load bearing and frictional properties unmatched among biological tissues and man-made bearing materials. Balancing fluid exudation and recovery under loaded and articulated conditions is essential to the tissue’s biological and mechanical longevity. Our prior tribological investigations, which leveraged the convergent stationary contact area (cSCA) configuration, revealed that sliding alone can modulate cartilage interstitial fluid pressurization and the recovery and maintenance of lubrication under load through a mechanism termed ‘tribological rehydration.’ Our recent comparative assessment of tribological rehydration revealed remarkably consistent sliding speed-dependent fluid recovery and lubrication behaviors across femoral condyle cartilage from five mammalian species (equine/horse, bovine/cow, porcine/pig, ovine/sheep, and caprine/goat). In the present study, we identified and characterized key predictive relationships among tissue properties, sliding-induced tribological rehydration, and the modulation/recovery of lubrication within healthy articular cartilage. Using correlational analysis, we linked observed speed-dependent tribological rehydration behaviors to cartilage’s geometry and biphasic properties (tensile and compressive moduli, permeability). Together, these findings demonstrate that easily measurable tissue characteristics (e.g., bulk tissue material properties, compressive strain magnitude, and strain rates) can be used to predict cartilage’s rehydration and lubricating abilities, and ultimately its function in vivo.

The Force and Motion Foundation Updates...


The Force and Motion Foundation 


Submit your 2023 2nd Quarter Scientific Poster NOW for the F&M $1000 Travel Scholarship! 


*F & M Foundation allows for one submission per year, per individual, with a total maximum award to be granted per individual of $2000 over their lifetime, (2 submissions)


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