Virtual Poster Session

Welcome to the Virtual Poster Session, a new and powerful tool for networking and information exchange. Here you can share your work, search though the poster library, and start a dialogue with others in your field. Each uploaded poster that pertains to force measurement and testing can currently be used to apply for an academic travel scholarship; please see the Scholarships page for application details and deadlines.

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Name: mgbrowne

Even prior to walking slower, older adults walk with a diminished push-off – decreased propulsive forces (FP) accompanied by reduced ankle moment and power generation. The purpose of this study was to identify age-related differences in the joint-level modifications used to modulate FP generation during walking. We posit that there are two possibilities for older adults to enhance FP generation. First, older adults may increase ankle power generation and thereby alleviate compensatory demands at the hip. Alternatively, older adults may opt to exacerbate their distal to proximal redistribution by relying even more on the hip musculature.
10 healthy young adults and 16 healthy older adults participated in this study. Subjects walked at their preferred speed while watching a video monitor displaying their instantaneous FP while instructed to modify their FP to match target values representing normal and ±10% and ±20% of normal. For all trials, we estimated lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics.
During normal walking, older adults exerted smaller FP and ankle power than young adults. Enhancing FP via biofeedback alleviated mechanical power demands at the hip, without changes in ankle power. Further, older adults walked with increased FP without increasing their total positive joint work. Thus, given the same total requisite power generation, older adults got ‘more bang for their ankle power buck’ using biofeedback.

Name: freyjoce

INTRODUCTION. Increased age is associated with changes in gait mechanics and decreased muscle function. As the knee extensors (KE) are prime movers in gait, altered KE function (strength, power, fatigability) could alter knee mechanics. This study aimed to determine whether a bout of exercise induces KE fatigue and changes in knee mechanics in two older groups with different physical activity levels: sedentary adults and runners.

METHODS. Adults aged 55-70 who were either runners (≥15 miles/wk) or sedentary (≤3x30 min exercise bouts/wk) completed gait and strength testing before and after a 30 minute treadmill walk (30MTW). Joint kinematics were calculated using the point cluster technique. Externally-referenced moments were calculated using inverse dynamics. KE power and isometric strength were assessed via isokinetic dynamometry. Changes in KE power and knee mechanics were calculated; within-group changes were examined using paired t-tests (p<0.1).

RESULTS. Sedentary adults displayed a drop in KE power at 6/8 contraction velocities vs. 2/8 in runners (poster Figure 2). Both groups showed an increase in knee flexion angle at heel strike and runners displayed decreased knee flexion moments post-30MTW (poster Figure 3).

CONCLUSIONS. Vigorous physical activity may allow older adults to maintain fatigue resistance. Sensitivity of knee mechanics to KE fatigue remains unclear as few changes were seen even in a fatigued group. Global, rather than discrete, measures of joint function may provide more sensitive measures of the response of gait mechanics to muscle fatigue and may allow for a more complete picture of the impact of muscle function on gait.

Listed In: Biomechanics, Gait
Name: sson2

Purpose: Knee pain is a chief symptom of knee pathology. Both acute and chronic knee pain result in altered joint loads during walking, which potentially result in mechanical and biological changes in knee articular cartilage. Due to confounding factors in clinical knee pain (effusion, muscle weakness, inflammation, structural changes), it is difficult to examine the independent effect of knee pain on walking mechanics. The purpose of this study is to examine whether unilateral experimentally induced knee pain influences bilateral loading patterns during walking in healthy individuals.
Methods: This study was a controlled laboratory, cross-over trial. Each of 30 able-bodied subjects (M = 20, F = 10; 23 ± 2.4 yrs, 71 ± 12.7 kg, 178 ± 8.2 cm) completed three experimental sessions: pain (5.0% NaCl infusion), sham (0.9% NaCl infusion), and control (no infusion) in a counterbalanced order, 2 days apart (a washout period). For the experimental sessions, hypertonic (5% NaCl) or isotonic (0.9% NaCl) saline was continuously infused into the right (involved limb) infrapatellar fat pad using a portable infusion pump, which produced a continuous saline flow of 0.154mL/min (total 2.16 mL) for 14 min for the pain or sham session, respectively. No infusion was administered to the control session. Subjects and investigators were blinded regarding the saline solution which was being infused. During each of three experimental sessions, subjects performed 30-sec gait trials at a self-selected speed at two time points (pre- and post-infusion). Ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected using an AMTI instrumented force-sensing tandem treadmill (1200 Hz). The first 4 successful gait cycles in each limb were used for data analysis. A functional data analysis approach (α = .05) was used to detect time (pre- and post-infusion) x limb (involved vs. uninvolved) interactions for the vertical, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral GRF.
Results: Significant time x limb interactions were observed during the pain session (hypertonic saline; 5.0% NaCl; p < .05). Experimental knee pain resulted in up to (i) 0.05 N/kg less vertical GRF and 0.02 N/kg more vertical GRF during various stance phases, (ii) 0.01 N/kg less breaking GRF during loading response, and (iii) 0.007 N/kg less lateral GRF and 0.007 N/kg more lateral GRF during various stance phases in the involved limb.
Conclusions: Relative to the pre-infusion condition, subjects during the knee pain condition tended to walk with less vertical, posterior and lateral GRF in the involved limb (painful limb) across various portions of stance, which simultaneously increased loads in the uninvolved limb (non-painful limb). Our data suggest that compensatory loading patterns occur simultaneously for the involved and uninvolved limbs. This unloading pattern in the involved limb may be due to perception of knee pain, which can make subjects feel fear for damaging or provoking pain more during walking. Moreover, voluntary and/or involuntary quadriceps inhibition (e.g., neuromuscular activation and strength) due to experimentally induced knee pain may play a role in reducing the loads in the involved limb because the quadriceps support the center of body mass eccentrically from initial loading response to midstance to prevent collapse of the lower limbs. These asymmetrical loading patterns due to knee pain and associated with neural inhibition may be a risk factor for knee joint disease progression via changes in mechanical components.

Listed In: Biomechanics, Gait
Name: Matthias-K

This study examined triceps surae muscle strength and tendon stiffness in young adult elite sprinters and jumpers over one season, in order to detect potential discordance between muscle and tendon adaptation due to training. Furthermore, we examined the effect of habitual training on triceps surae muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanical properties in young and older athletes, using a cross-sectional design.
Eleven healthy younger elite sprinters and jumpers, 12 master athletes, 12 recreationally active young controls and one young elite athlete, 10 months after unilateral Achilles tendon reconstruction participated. All young athletes underwent regular measurements over one season. Triceps surae muscle strength and tendon stiffness of both legs were analysed using dynamometry and ultrasonography synchronously.
Within one season, similar patterns of relative changes in muscle strength and tendon stiffness were seen in the young elite athletes. For the tendon reconstruction athlete, the affected leg showed no increases in muscle strength or tendon stiffness over one season, and remarkably lower muscle strength but similar tendon stiffness compared to the non-affected leg. Healthy young elite athletes showed higher muscle strength and tendon stiffness than both other subject groups, with no differences between young controls and master athletes.
Our results provide evidence for training-induced concordant adaptation of muscle and tendon over one season within healthy young elite athletes. Achilles tendon rupture and reconstruction may be a major risk factor for irreversible discordance within the triceps surae MTU. Finally, habitual athletics training over the lifespan may effectively counteract age-related decreases in muscle strength and tendon stiffness.

Name: kuhmand15

Old versus young adults exhibit increased hip and decreased ankle joint mechanical output during level and incline walking. This distal-to-proximal redistribution of joint torques and powers is now a well-established age-related gait adaptation and has been termed biomechanical plasticity. The effect of physical capacity, which varies greatly in old adults, on this gait adaptation remains unclear. For example, high capacity old adults (i.e. those with fast walking speeds) might either retain a more youthful gait strategy or adopt larger magnitudes of plasticity in order to walk well. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relationships between physical capacity and biomechanical plasticity in old adults during level and incline walking. We conducted 3D gait analyses on 32 old adults (>70 yrs) as they walked over level ground and up a 10° incline at self-selected speeds. We used motion capture (Qualisys AB) and force platforms (AMTI) to collect kinematic and ground reaction force data, respectively. To measure physical capacity, we used the SF-36 Physical Component score and to define biomechanical plasticity we created ratios of hip extensor to ankle plantarflexor peak torques, angular impulses, peak positive powers, and work. We conducted correlation analyses between SF-36 PC scores and the biomechanical plasticity ratios. Positive relationships existed between SF-36 PC scores and all biomechanical plasticity ratios during level walking. Similar results were observed during incline walking, however only three of these four relationships reached statistical significance. Our results suggest that old adults of higher physical capacities exhibit larger magnitudes of biomechanical plasticity.

Listed In: Biomechanics, Gait
Name: chrismccrum

Bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) is a bilateral reduction or loss of vestibular function resulting in balance deficits and an increased falls risk. As part of a larger study, this experiment aimed to assess how spatiotemporal gait characteristics and their variability change across different walking speeds in patients with BVH. Nine patients (55±15y) with BVH have participated thus far. Experiments were conducted on the CAREN Extended system (Motekforce Link, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Following multiple familiarisation trials, the participants completed five recorded two minute walking bouts at different speeds (0.6m/s, 0.8m/s, 1.0m/s, 1.2m/s and 1.4m/s). 60 strides per speed were analysed and the means, standard deviations and coefficients of variation (CV) of stride length and time, step length and width, double support time and swing phase toe clearance were calculated. Stride length, step length and toe clearance all increased with increases in walking speed (P<0.001). Stride and double support time decreased with increased walking speed (P<0.0001). No walking speed effect was found for step width (P=0.25). Significant reductions in variability with increases in walking speed were found for stride length, stride time, step length, toe clearance (P<0.01) and double support time (P<0.05). A significant increase in step width variability was observed with increases in walking speed (P=0.0033). These preliminary data suggest that while anteroposterior gait characteristics may improve in terms or variability with increases in walking speed in these patients, mediolateral motions may become more variable, which may have implications for mediolateral stability and falls risk in patients with BVH.

Name: mcdonaac

The relationship between EMG and muscle force changes with muscle fatigue, making interpretation of load sharing between muscles over time challenging. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of normalizing EMG data to repeated, static, submaximal exertions to mitigate the fatigue artifact in EMG amplitude. Participants completed simulated repetitive work tasks, in 60-second work cycles, until exhaustion and surface EMG was recorded from 11 muscles. Every 12 minutes, participants completed a series of 4 submaximal reference exertions. Reference exertion EMG data were used in 6 normalizing methods including 1 standard (normalized to initial reference exertion) and 5 novel methods: (i) Fatigue Only, (ii) Linear Model, (iii) Cubic Model, (iv) Points Forward, and (v) Points Forward/Backward. EMG data were normalized to each novel methods and results were compared to the Standard Method. The significant differences between the novel methods and the Standard Method were dependent on the muscle and the number of time points in the analysis. Correlation analysis showed that the predicted cubic model points correlated better to the actual data points than the linear predicted values. This novel method to create “fatigue debiased” ratios may better reflect the changing muscular loads during repetitive work. This method was evaluated with a novel data set examining the effects of repetitive shoulder exertions, in multiple axes, on load sharing in the shoulder over time. The normalizing method was effective at distinguishing between the effects of fatigue artifact on EMG amplitude and load sharing between muscles over time.

Listed In: Biomechanics

Falls due to slippery conditions are among the primary causes of disabling workplace injuries. Despite the extensive amount of human slip studies in the literature, only a handful of studies have reported ground reaction forces at the instant of slip initiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify the vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) at slip initiation during unexpected human slips across different footwear-contaminant conditions. Forty-seven healthy subjects were unexpectedly exposed to a liquid–contaminant, while the vertical force was measured at the moment that the foot began to start slipping. The average VGRF were between 100 and 300 N and varied significantly across the footwear. These forces were significantly less than the typical forces (400-700 N) applied during slip-resistance measurements. This finding may suggest that available coefficient of friction (ACOF) measurements should use lower force levels in order to achieve higher relevance to the onset of slipping.

Listed In: Biomechanics, Gait
Name: dgroulx

Lateral ankle sprains are common orthopedic injuries and often result in chronic ankle instability (CAI). Studies have shown that the CAI population typically has decreased ankle proprioception and possibly a greater reliance on visual feedback when compared to healthy controls. However, little is known about how the postural control characteristics change in those with and without CAI when external visual feedback is manipulated. Purpose: To compare postural control characteristics of persons with CAI, Copers and healthy adults when performing a single leg balance test with and without external feedback. Method: The definition for CAI used for this study includes persons who have experienced recurrent ankle sprains, in addition to self-reported “feelings of instability” and “giving way,” and a score on the Identification of Functional Ankle Instability (IdFAI) of 11 or greater. 18 participants with CAI, 15 Copers, and 18 healthy controls (mean age of all groups: 22 years) performed the Athlete Single Leg Test on the Biodex Balance System (BBS) at Level 4 which involved a high degree of platform instability. All participants completed 2 trials without and with feedback in that order. Center of pressure position was recorded and the two trial mean was used for further analysis. Overall stability index (OSI) defined as the mean distance of the center of pressure from the center of the platform was obtained from the system. Sway area was calculated using custom Matlab script. Separate 3 (Group) x 2 (Feedback) mixed ANOVAs were run using overall stability index (OSI), and sway area as dependent variables. Results: Significant feedback main effect showed participants had significantly lower (better) OSI value with feedback (1.4±0.1) compared to without feedback (2.6±0.2; P < 0.001) but sway area with feedback (8.61±2.33cm2) was similar to without feedback (10.94±2.43 cm2). There was no significant group main effect or interaction observed for either of the variables. Conclusion: Results suggest that external visual feedback may not play a significant role in helping persons with CAI improve their postural control.

Name: kaconway

The age-associated decline in propulsive push off power generated during walking plays a central role in the reduction of mobility and independence in older adults. Previous work suggests that this population retains an underutilized propulsive reserve during normal walking that dynamometry assessments fail to effectively assess. This is especially notable when assessing plantarflexor mechanical output, which often yield implausible (i.e., ≥100%) values of ‘functional capacity utilized (FCU)’, most frequently defined as the ratio of the peak ankle moment during the push-off phase of walking to that during a maximum isometric voluntary contraction. Therefore, the extent to which we utilize our propulsive capacity, how utilization changes as we age, and the factors that govern utilization and maximum propulsive capacity remain unclear. Utilizing a feedback controlled, motor driven horizontal impeding force system and a novel maximum force condition which systematically increases applied force, we can find a participant’s maximum propulsive capacity. During this condition, we find that younger adults retain a reserve of 48% in terms of ground reaction force, 22% in terms of ankle moment and 43% in terms of ankle power, which may not be effectively predicted using dynamometry assessments. As an important first step, we present data showing that a more functional task, walking with horizontal impeding forces, could potentially more effectively assess propulsive reserves in younger adults.

Listed In: Biomechanics