Effects of Total Knee Replacement Material Pairing on Implant Kinematics and Stability
Abstract: Physical testing of TKR systems to assess stability is an important aspect in screening candidate TKR designs which can be expensive and time consuming. Costs can be reduced by utilizing 3D printed plastic components. The objective is to compare the kinematics and intrinsic constraint of metal-on-plastic (M-P) and plastic-on-plastic (P-P) implants under physiologically relevant loading, with and without simulated ligament contributions, in order to elucidate the effects of material pairings. A cruciate retaining TKR implant was created by combining a 3D printed ABS plastic tibial component with the standard cobalt chrome femoral component, as well as a 3D printed ABS plastic replica femoral component. This results in both M-P and P-P articulations that were mounted to a VIVO 6-DOF joint motion simulator (AMTI, Watertown, MA), which was used for in vitro constraint testing using functional laxity tests. Anterior-posterior (AP) and internal-external (IE) constraint was measured based on resulting deviations from the normal path when superimposed AP and IE loads were applied. Ligaments were simulated as tension-only point-to-point springs using the soft tissue modelling capabilities of the VIVO. Different kinematics were observed between the M-P and P-P implants which could be the result of different initial implant positioning on the joint motion simulator or due to “stiction” of the P-P implant. The functional laxity of the implant system tested appears to be relatively insensitive to the material pairing and ligament presence. These relationships are complex and hard to predict, which underscores the importance of pre-clinical in vitro testing.
Listed In: Biomechanical Engineering, Biomechanics, Gait, Mechanical Engineering, Orthopedic Research,
Tagged In: 3D printing, constraint testing, implant kinematics, joint motion simulator, laxity, simulated ligaments, tkr, VIVO
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