While the popularity of triathlon is increasing, the underlying biomechanics of the various bicycling positions and saddle types are not yet understood. PURPOSE: To determine how bicycle rider position and saddle type (road vs. triathlon) affect the bicycle-rider interface forces (BRIFs) at a standardized power and cadence. METHODS: A stationary cycling ergometer was modified to include force transducers at the saddle, bottom bracket, and stem. Anatomical measurements were made in order to fine-tune rider fit on the ergometer. 9 subjects completed riding trials in all combinations of road position, road saddle, triathlon position, and triathlon saddle. Riding trials were 6 minutes, at a standardized power output of 2 Watts per kilogram (W/kg) and 90 Revolutions per Minute (RPM). RESULTS: Analysis was broken into three categories: Road Saddle, Road Position (RR) vs. Triathlon Saddle, Road Position (TR), Road Saddle, Triathlon Position (RT) vs. Triathlon Saddle, Triathlon Position (TT), and Road Saddle, Road Position vs. Triathlon Saddle, Triathlon Position. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences in saddle vertical forces between either body positions or saddle type. However, there were significant differences at the handlebar; 8.4% more body weight supported at the handlebar in the triathlon position compared to the road position while using a triathlon saddle. CONCLUSION: Across cycling positions, there is a significant change in saddle and stem vertical forces. However, within a cycling position, saddle type does not change the amount of vertical force seen at the saddle.
Listed In: Biomechanical Engineering, Biomechanics, Sports Science

Prolonged Cycling's Effect on Transition Run Mechanics in Triathletes

A period of incoordination and fatigue is commonly associated with the transition run in triathletes, in which running mechanics are thought to be altered. Few studies have examined the changes in ground reaction forces and vertical loading rate during the transition run. Our purpose was to assess the changes that occur in ground reaction forces during a fatigued transition run in triathletes. 13 recreational male triathletes (34 ± 4.2 years) performed an incremental cycling test and a cycle to run transition on separate testing sessions. A 15-camera Vicon motion capture system collecting at 200 Hz and an AMTI force instrumented treadmill collecting at 2000 Hz were used in conjunction with a modified Plug-In Gait marker to collect trajectory and analog data for pre and post-cycling running trials. Ground reaction forces and temporal spatial parameters were assessed during stance of all running trials using Visual 3D software. Peak vertical ground reaction force and step length decreased significantly from pre-cycling to immediate post-cycling measures (p=.003, p<.001), no difference existed for either variable for pre-cycling vs. 10min post-cycling. Instantaneous peak vertical loading rate (IVLR) and step rate increased significantly from pre-cycling to immediate post-cycling measures (p=.05, p<.001), no difference existed for stride rate for pre-cycling vs. 10min post-cycling. IVLR remained significantly increased at the 10 min post-cyling (p=.035). The study findings suggest that fatigue from prolonged cycling can negatively impact triathletes’ ability to attenuate ground reaction forces in subsequent running.
Listed In: Biomechanics, Gait, Sports Science